Author's Note: The "Upstate New York Stargazing" series ran on the newyorkupstate.com and syracuse.com websites (and limited use in-print) from 2016 to 2018. For the full list of articles, see the Upstate New York Stargazing page.
Upstate NY Stargazing in March: 2 full moons, Venus and Mercury after sunset
Published: Mar. 01, 2018, 5:26 p.m.
By Damian Allis | Contributing writer
There were a few evenings this past February that were unexpectedly comfortable for the time of year, hopefully giving observers some unexpectedly long opportunities to take in some of the busiest regions of our nighttime sky.
To have the grouping of the Winter Hexagon – Orion, Taurus, Auriga, Gemini, Canis Minor, and Canis Major – out and about at such reasonable hours means that anyone can see not only the brightest grouping of bright stars in our yearly sky, but also some of the closest groups of stars. The Hyades star cluster, made up of the "V" of the head of Taurus the Bull – but not including the bright eye star Aldebaran – is our closest star cluster at 150 light years. Just to the northwest of the Hyades lies the second-closest bright cluster of stars to our Solar System – Pleiades.
If you can find the Pleiades and the patch of stars under Orion's Belt, you can even scratch two of the 110 Messier Objects off of your list. The history and some key details of the Messier Objects were discussed in the March 2017 article. In brief – these are the bright galaxies, star clusters, and nebulae that can all be found with little more than a quality pair of binoculars, dark skies, a good star chart, and a big cup of coffee. The time around mid-March and early-April is the only time of the year when, if you start VERY soon after sunset, you can find all 110 of these objects before sunrise the next morning. Astronomy clubs the world over often plan marathons as a group – these are great opportunities to learn from seasoned amateurs as well as to see how the same object may look in many different binoculars and telescopes.
Lectures And Observing Opportunities In Upstate/Central New York
New York has a number of astronomers, astronomy clubs, and observatories that host public sessions throughout the year. Announced sessions from respondent NY astronomy organizations are provided below for March. As wind and cloud cover are always factors when observing, please check the provided contact information and/or email the groups a day-or-so before an announced session, as some groups will also schedule weather-alternate dates. Also use the contact info for directions and to check on any applicable event or parking fees. And bring one more layer of clothing than you think you are going to need!
Astronomy Events Calendar
|Adirondack Public Observatory||Tupper Lake||1st Friday Observing||Mar. 2||7:30 PM||email, website|
|Adirondack Public Observatory||Tupper Lake||3rd Friday Observing||Mar. 16||7:30 PM||email, website|
|Albany Area Amateur Astronomers & Dudley Observatory||Schenectady||AAAA Meeting||Mar. 15||7:30 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Albany Area Amateur Astronomers & Dudley Observatory||Schenectady||Night Sky Adventure||Mar. 20||7 – 8:30 PM||email, website|
|Astronomy Section, Rochester Academy of Science||Rochester||Member Meeting||Mar. 2||7:30 – 9:30 PM||email, website|
|Baltimore Woods||Marcellus||Goodbye Winter Skies||Mar. 16||6 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Kopernik Observatory & Science Center||Vestal||Friday Night Observing||Mar. 2||7 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Kopernik Observatory & Science Center||Vestal||KAS Monthly Meeting||Mar. 7||7 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Kopernik Observatory & Science Center||Vestal||Friday Night Observing||Mar. 9||7 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Kopernik Observatory & Science Center||Vestal||Friday Night Observing||Mar. 16||7 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Kopernik Observatory & Science Center||Vestal||Friday Night Observing||Mar. 23||7 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Mohawk Valley Astronomical Society||Waterville||Public Star Gazing||Mar. 10||7:30 – 10:30 PM||email, website|
|Mohawk Valley Astronomical Society||Waterville||Meeting and Lecture||Mar. 14||7:30 – 9 PM||email, website|
|Full Moon||Third Quarter||New Moon||First Quarter||Full Moon|
|Mar. 1, 7:51 pm||Mar. 9, 6:19 am||Mar. 17, 9:11 am||Mar. 24, 11:35 am||Mar. 31, 8:36 am|
Lunar features prominent in low-power binoculars.
The lack of a Full Moon in February means a double Full Moon in March this year, spaced on the 1st and 31st. Those keeping track will note that the Full Moon on the 31st is the second Blue Moon of 2018. The Vernal Equinox, or beginning of Spring, on the 20th is paired with a thin crescent Moon in the western sky.
Items and events listed below assume you're outside and observing most anywhere in New York. The longer you're outside and away from indoor or bright lights, the better your dark adaption will be. If you have to use your smartphone, find a red light app or piece of red acetate, else set your brightness as low as possible.
Evening Skies: The Winter Triangle – Sirius in Canis Major, Procyon in Canis Minor, and Betelgeuse in Orion – shares an edge with the much larger Winter Hexagon – Sirius, Procyon, Pollux in Gemini, Capella in Auriga, Aldebaran in Taurus, and Rigel in Orion. As these two work their way to the west earlier each night this month, binocular observers can spare themselves some neck strain while looking at the Pleiades star cluster in Taurus and the cloudy Orion Nebula below Orion's belt. Both are excellent targets at low- and high-power magnification.
With Orion and its cohort all above the horizon before midnight, learning eight constellations at once is as easy as following some lines within Orion's bowtie asterism.
Morning Skies: The Summer Triangle has fully cleared the horizon for early risers, giving observers a chance to perfect their late-evening summertime observing of the many binocular and telescope objects within the band of our Milky Way. Off the corner star Vega, the keystone of Hercules may stand out to you – a pair of binoculars will reveal the great globular cluster Messier Object 13 off the southwest corner star. More information about Hercules can be found in the Oct. 2016 article. The rest of the morning highlights belong to the planets Saturn, Mars, and Jupiter to the south.
Moving from the Little Dipper to the Big Dipper, continue nearly the same distance to reach the hind end of Leo the Lion – look to the west for the backwards question mark that is its mane. Following the handle of the Big Dipper, one can simply "arc" their way to the first bright star in that path – the star Arcturus in Bootes.
Mercury and Venus: This is a fantastic month for those who favor the inner planets. Venus is unmissable along the western horizon after sunset right now and will appear higher in the sky each night this month. If you train your binoculars on Venus over the next few days after sunset and place it in the upper left-hand corner, you can already sneak a view of Mercury, which will appear as a much dimmer pinpoint of light. Mercury rises higher this month, reaching its observing peak on Mar. 17/18 before its orbit makes it set earlier each night out into April. The best night for binocular observers will be Mar. 18th, when Mercury and Venus line up almost perfectly with a sliver-of-a-crescent moon.
Mars, Jupiter and Saturn: Saturn, Mars, and Jupiter all clear the eastern horizon well before sunrise this month, with Jupiter taking a healthy lead within the constellation Libra. Mars spends the first third of the month in Ophiuchus before settling into Sagittarius with Saturn. The Moon makes for several nice pairings with all three planets during the first full week of March on its way to New Moon.
Mars flies across our edge-on view of the center of the Milky Way this month. If you scan anywhere near Mars with binoculars, you may see some occasional fuzzy patches that do not come into focus like the pinpoint stars also within your field of view – these nebulae are among the list of Messier Objects for your finding and observing pleasure. On the 19th, Mars will be surrounded by Messier 8 below and M20 and M21 above – all well in the field of view of binoculars.
Those with even poor-quality binoculars are able to see the four bright satellites of Jupiter – known as the "Galilean Moons" for their first observer – and the appearance of Jupiter as a disc of light instead of a simple pinpoint like all stars. Many websites, including the Jupiter's Moons webapp at Sky & Telescope, can provide you with the real-time and future positions of the fast-moving moons for any viewing opportunity you get this and every month.
ISS And Tiangong-1 Flyovers
Satellite flyovers are commonplace, with several bright passes easily visible per hour in the nighttime sky, yet a thrill to new observers of all ages. Few flyovers compare in brightness or interest to the International Space Station. The flyovers of the football field-sized craft with its massive solar panel arrays and three current occupants can be predicted to within several seconds and take several minutes to complete.
The ISS is a morning target this month until the 23rd, when it returns to the early-evening skies into early April. Observers are treated to pairs of flyovers several times in the next few weeks, provided you wake up early enough to catch the first of the two.
|Date||Brightness||Approx. Start||Start Direct.||Approx. End||End Direct.|
|3/1||extremely||5:34 AM||SW||5:40 AM||E/NE|
|3/2||extremely||4:44 AM||SE||4:48 AM||E/NE|
|3/3||somewhat||3:54 AM||E||3:55 AM||E|
|3/3||extremely||5:27 AM||W||5:32 AM||NE|
|3/4||extremely||4:37 AM||NE||4:39 AM||NE|
|3/5||somewhat||3:47 AM||E/NE||3:47 AM||E/NE|
|3/5||very||5:19 AM||NW||5:23 AM||NE|
|3/6||very||4:29 AM||N/NE||4:31 AM||NE|
|3/7||somewhat||3:39 AM||NE||3:39 AM||NE|
|3/7||very||5:11 AM||NW||5:15 AM||NE|
|3/8||moderately||4:21 AM||N/NE||4:23 AM||NE|
|3/8||moderately||5:55 AM||NW||6:00 AM||NE|
|3/9||moderately||5:03 AM||N/NW||5:07 AM||NE|
|3/10||moderately||4:13 AM||N/NE||4:14 AM||NE|
|3/10||moderately||5:47 AM||NW||5:52 AM||E/NE|
As mentioned in last month's article, the unmanned Chinese Tiangong-1 space station is about to fall back to Earth. The previous estimates of a fiery re-entry around mid-March have been updated to somewhere in the late-March-to-mid-April range. We hopefully won't have *too* good a view of its re-entry, but can still catch it in its orbits right now thanks to up-to-date tracking predictions.
|Date||Brightness||Approx. Start||Start Direct.||Approx. End||End Direct.|
|3/2||very dim||6:48 PM||S/SW||6:51 PM||SE|
|3/3||dim||6:39 PM||SW||6:42 PM||E/SE|
|3/4||dim||6:30 PM||SW||6:34 PM||E|
|3/7||dim||7:33 PM||W||7:35 PM||W|
|3/8||somewhat||7:23 PM||W||7:25 PM||S/SW|
|3/9||somewhat||7:12 PM||W||7:15 PM||S/SE|
|3/10||dim||7:01 PM||W||7:04 PM||SE|
|3/11||dim||7:49 PM||W||7:53 PM||SE|
No Major Meteor Showers This Month
As has been discussed in previous articles, meteor showers are the result of the Earth passing through the debris field of a comet or asteroid. While the orbits of scores of these objects bring them close to Earth's orbit, a limited number produce enough debris to produce significant meteor shower activity. February and March mark yearly lulls in major meteor shower activity, with the next prominent shower being the Lryids that occur in April.
The astronomy community recognizes many minor showers that are predictable in their timing and are predictably unimpressive. Those interested in seeing a full list should check out the American Meteor Society meteor shower calendar.
Learn A Constellation: Taurus (Again)
In last month's article, we considered the most "logical" reason for there being 12 zodiacal constellations, a mathematical basis that originates with the Babylonians. It is likely that their system of mathematics was itself inspired entirely by their astronomical observations and need to establish a more definitive way to mark the changing months. Once a civilization grows so large as to rely on mass-organized agriculture to keep itself fed, knowing how to follow the changing seasons and plan the next harvest becomes a very important driver in getting organized!
The year is almost exactly 365 days long, a number that lies quite close to 360. 360 is, of course, the product of 12 and 30, with 12 having been described last month as an excellent measuring stick for its ability to be divided into smaller pieces with the numbers 2, 3, 4, and 6. The lunar cycle of a little under 30 days occurs 12 times in a solar year with just under 12 full days to spare. It is hard to imagine these prominent occurrences of the number 12 and 30 in the celestial mechanics of the day not having a great influence on the scientists of the day – just as its hard to imagine that some were not completely vexed by the fact that nothing in the skies above occurred exactly in whole numbers. The artificial addition of some whole-number quantity into the night sky in the form of 12 zodiacal constellations to follow the Sun, Moon, and five wandering stars that we know today as the planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn must have come as a great relief to the scribes of the day upon their introduction.
The next constellation in our evening walk around the zodiac is Taurus the Bull, already described in detail in the December 2016 article. There's strong evidence that the first representation of this constellation as a large-horned bull goes back around 17,500 years, as represented in a cave painting found in Lascaux, France. That this representation may predate our more common Egyptian/Greek/Roman origins for the most prominent groupings of stars in the sky by many millennia is one of the great joys of astronomy. Thanks to the very slow changing positions of the stars in our celestial neighborhood, every one of your ancestors with decent vision and the curiosity to look up in wonder has seen these same basic groupings over that past several tens of thousands of years.
Just off one of the horn stars is the supernova remnant known as the Crab Nebula – designated Messier 1 (M1). This Messier is of all kinds of historical significance. When the associated star ended in an explosive display in May of 1054 A.D., Chinese and Middle Eastern astronomers recorded it as a daytime-observable object. Almost 700 years later, astronomer John Bevis observed the nebulous remains of this supernova explosion. The name "Crab Nebula" comes from William Parsons in his 1840 observations, where its shape and defining features looked to him like a crab.