Isotopically-Labeled Solid-State Vibrational Mode Energies And Intensities In Crystal09 – A Simple How-To

The generation of isotopically-substituted molecular crystal spectra has become a point of interest, which means blog post. To be clear, this is for cases where isotopic substitution does not affect the crystal geometry – the crystal cell does not change significantly upon deuteration (and for those who believe isotopic substitution never leads to significant changes in the solid, I refer you Zhou, Kye, and Harbison’s article on Isotopomeric Polymprphism and their work on 4-methylpyridine pentachlorophenol, which changes dramatically upon deuteration. I beat on this point because blindly assuming of the crystal cell geometry in such cases will produce spectra noticeably different than measured. It’s NOT the calculation’s fault!).

The generation of isotopically-substituted spectra and intensities in Crystal09 is trivial provided that you KEEP THE FREQINFO.DAT FILE. In fact, you need keep ONLY the FREQINFO.DAT to generate these spectra, which greatly reduces file transfer loads and allows for the scripted calculation of new vibrational spectra and thermodynamic data post-frequency calculation.

As my example system, I’m using the dispersion-corrected crystal cell of alpha-HMX (I have it handy, it’s a small system, and having anything about HMX on your website is proven to increase traffic) at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Original input file (the one where the original normal mode analysis is performed) is below:

Test - alpha-HMX 6-31Gdp set DFT/B3LYP FREQ
CRYSTAL
0 0 0
43
15.14 23.89 5.913 124.3
14
6      1.016493675797E-01 -4.109909899348E-02 -3.351438244488E-03
6     -6.539109813231E-02 -6.180633576707E-02 -1.110575784790E-02
1      9.149797846691E-02 -4.382919469310E-02 -1.860042940246E-01
1      1.558888705857E-01 -6.829708099502E-02  4.595161229829E-02
1     -5.138242817334E-02 -5.844587273099E-02 -1.920922064181E-01
1     -9.781600273101E-02 -1.015710562102E-01  2.063738273292E-02
7      1.992579327285E-02 -5.951921578598E-02  1.040704228546E-01
7      1.232154652110E-01  1.634305404407E-02  5.951841980010E-02
7      2.220759010770E-02 -7.142100857312E-02  3.299259852838E-01
7      2.054067942916E-01  2.817244373261E-02  1.473285310628E-01
8     -4.761487685316E-02 -8.656669456613E-02  4.192568497756E-01
8      9.327421157186E-02 -6.479426971916E-02  4.286363161888E-01
8      2.563441491059E-01 -1.128705054032E-02  1.760581823035E-01
8      2.225071782791E-01  7.736574474011E-02  1.903699942346E-01
FREQCALC
INTENS
END
END
8 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
 5484.671700         0.1831100000E-02
 825.2349500         0.1395010000E-01
 188.0469600         0.6844510000E-01
 52.96450000         0.2327143000    
 16.89757000         0.4701930000    
 5.799635300         0.3585209000  
0 1 3 6.0 1.0
 15.53961600        -0.1107775000         0.7087430000E-01
 3.599933600        -0.1480263000         0.3397528000    
 1.013761800          1.130767000         0.7271586000    
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
 0.2700058000          1.000000000          1.000000000
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
 0.800000000          1.00000000    
7 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
       4173.51100         0.183480000E-02
       627.457900         0.139950000E-01
       142.902100         0.685870000E-01
       40.2343300         0.232241000    
       12.8202100         0.469070000    
       4.39043700         0.360455000    
0 1 3 5.0 1.0
       11.6263580        -0.114961000         0.675800000E-01
       2.71628000        -0.169118000         0.323907000    
      0.772218000          1.14585200         0.740895000    
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
      0.212031300          1.00000000          1.00000000    
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
 0.800000000          1.00000000    
6 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
    .3047524880D+04   .1834737130D-02
    .4573695180D+03   .1403732280D-01
    .1039486850D+03   .6884262220D-01
    .2921015530D+02   .2321844430D+00
    .9286662960D+01   .4679413480D+00
    .3163926960D+01   .3623119850D+00
0 1 3 4.0 1.0
    .7868272350D+01  -.1193324200D+00   .6899906660D-01
    .1881288540D+01  -.1608541520D+00   .3164239610D+00
    .5442492580D+00   .1143456440D+01   .7443082910D+00
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
    .1687144782D+00   .1000000000D+01   .1000000000D+01
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
    .8000000000D+00   .1000000000D+01
1 3
0 0 3 1.0 1.0
    .1873113696D+02   .3349460434D-01
    .2825394365D+01   .2347269535D+00
    .6401216923D+00   .8137573262D+00
0 0 1 0.0 1.0
    .1612777588D+00   .1000000000D+01
0 2 1 0.0 1.0
    .1100000000D+01   .1000000000D+01
99 0
END
DFT
B3LYP
XLGRID
END
EXCHSIZE
10654700
BIPOSIZE
10654700
TOLINTEG
8 8 8 8 16
SCFDIR
MAXCYCLE
100
TOLDEE
11
GRIMME
1.05 20. 25.
4
1 0.14 1.001
6 1.75 1.452 
7 1.23 1.397
8 0.70 1.342
SHRINK
8 8
LEVSHIFT
5 0
FMIXING
50
END
END

Upon completion of this run, you need only the FREQINFO.DAT file, the last set of coordinates from the .OUT file (for atom counting purposes) and an input file which is modified from the original only in the specification of the ISOTOPES section and which includes a RESTART.

Question – how does one deal with isotopically-labeling atoms when it breaks the space group symmetry? If I isotopically label Atom 1 in the asymmetric unit, what happens to the other N symmetry-related atoms?

Answer – Crystal09, in its infinite wisdom, does not consider the asymmetric unit in the isotopic substitution scheme. If you’ve 14 atoms in the asymmetric unit (the symmetry-unique atoms you provide in the input file)…

14
6      1.016493675797E-01 -4.109909899348E-02 -3.351438244488E-03
6     -6.539109813231E-02 -6.180633576707E-02 -1.110575784790E-02
...
8      2.563441491059E-01 -1.128705054032E-02  1.760581823035E-01
8      2.225071782791E-01  7.736574474011E-02  1.903699942346E-01

and 56 atoms in the full unit cell…

ATOMS IN THE ASYMMETRIC UNIT   14 - ATOMS IN THE UNIT CELL:   56
     ATOM              X/A                 Y/B                 Z/C    
 *******************************************************************************
   1 T   6 C    -1.460999048177E-01  1.393970283287E-01  6.390170683069E-02
   2 F   6 C     1.393970283287E-01 -1.460999048177E-01 -5.719883034171E-02
   3 F   6 C     3.071988303417E-01  1.860982931693E-01  1.106029716713E-01
   4 F   6 C     1.860982931693E-01  3.071988303417E-01  3.960999048177E-01
...
  53 T   8 O     4.522856069554E-02  3.355114277736E-01  1.095029287847E-01
  54 F   8 O     3.355114277736E-01  4.522856069554E-02 -4.902429172538E-01
  55 F   8 O    -2.597570827462E-01  1.404970712153E-01 -8.551142777356E-02
  56 F   8 O     1.404970712153E-01 -2.597570827462E-01  2.047714393045E-01

your ISOTOPES section relies on the numbering of the atoms in the “56 atom” list.

The input file below will calculate an isotopically-labeled vibrational spectrum for 8 of the hydrogen atoms that ends up breaking the unit cell symmetry (which will be more obvious from the produced mode energies). Again, the atom numbers come from the “ATOMS IN THE ASYMMETRIC UNIT” part of the original optimization by which you performed the original normal mode analysis (hopefully).

Test - alpha-HMX 6-31Gdp set DFT/B3LYP FREQ - Isotopic Substitution
CRYSTAL
0 0 0
43
15.14 23.89 5.913 124.3
14
6      1.016493675797E-01 -4.109909899348E-02 -3.351438244488E-03
6     -6.539109813231E-02 -6.180633576707E-02 -1.110575784790E-02
1      9.149797846691E-02 -4.382919469310E-02 -1.860042940246E-01
1      1.558888705857E-01 -6.829708099502E-02  4.595161229829E-02
1     -5.138242817334E-02 -5.844587273099E-02 -1.920922064181E-01
1     -9.781600273101E-02 -1.015710562102E-01  2.063738273292E-02
7      1.992579327285E-02 -5.951921578598E-02  1.040704228546E-01
7      1.232154652110E-01  1.634305404407E-02  5.951841980010E-02
7      2.220759010770E-02 -7.142100857312E-02  3.299259852838E-01
7      2.054067942916E-01  2.817244373261E-02  1.473285310628E-01
8     -4.761487685316E-02 -8.656669456613E-02  4.192568497756E-01
8      9.327421157186E-02 -6.479426971916E-02  4.286363161888E-01
8      2.563441491059E-01 -1.128705054032E-02  1.760581823035E-01
8      2.225071782791E-01  7.736574474011E-02  1.903699942346E-01
FREQCALC
RESTART
ISOTOPES
8
9  2
10 2
11 2
13 2
14 2
15 2
16 2
18 2
INTENS
END
END
8 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
 5484.671700         0.1831100000E-02
 825.2349500         0.1395010000E-01
 188.0469600         0.6844510000E-01
 52.96450000         0.2327143000    
 16.89757000         0.4701930000    
 5.799635300         0.3585209000  
0 1 3 6.0 1.0
 15.53961600        -0.1107775000         0.7087430000E-01
 3.599933600        -0.1480263000         0.3397528000    
 1.013761800          1.130767000         0.7271586000    
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
 0.2700058000          1.000000000          1.000000000
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
 0.800000000          1.00000000    
7 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
       4173.51100         0.183480000E-02
       627.457900         0.139950000E-01
       142.902100         0.685870000E-01
       40.2343300         0.232241000    
       12.8202100         0.469070000    
       4.39043700         0.360455000    
0 1 3 5.0 1.0
       11.6263580        -0.114961000         0.675800000E-01
       2.71628000        -0.169118000         0.323907000    
      0.772218000          1.14585200         0.740895000    
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
      0.212031300          1.00000000          1.00000000    
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
 0.800000000          1.00000000    
6 4
0 0 6 2.0 1.0
    .3047524880D+04   .1834737130D-02
    .4573695180D+03   .1403732280D-01
    .1039486850D+03   .6884262220D-01
    .2921015530D+02   .2321844430D+00
    .9286662960D+01   .4679413480D+00
    .3163926960D+01   .3623119850D+00
0 1 3 4.0 1.0
    .7868272350D+01  -.1193324200D+00   .6899906660D-01
    .1881288540D+01  -.1608541520D+00   .3164239610D+00
    .5442492580D+00   .1143456440D+01   .7443082910D+00
0 1 1 0.0 1.0
    .1687144782D+00   .1000000000D+01   .1000000000D+01
0 3 1 0.0 1.0
    .8000000000D+00   .1000000000D+01
1 3
0 0 3 1.0 1.0
    .1873113696D+02   .3349460434D-01
    .2825394365D+01   .2347269535D+00
    .6401216923D+00   .8137573262D+00
0 0 1 0.0 1.0
    .1612777588D+00   .1000000000D+01
0 2 1 0.0 1.0
    .1100000000D+01   .1000000000D+01
99 0
END
DFT
B3LYP
XLGRID
END
EXCHSIZE
10654700
BIPOSIZE
10654700
TOLINTEG
8 8 8 8 16
SCFDIR
MAXCYCLE
100
TOLDEE
11
GRIMME
1.05 20. 25.
4
1 0.14 1.001
6 1.75 1.452 
7 1.23 1.397
8 0.70 1.342
SHRINK
8 8
LEVSHIFT
5 0
FMIXING
50
END
END

The difference is in the FREQCALC section, which calls RESTART (to use the FREQINFO.DAT file), ISOTOPES (obvious), the total number of atoms that are having their isotopes changed (8), then the list, containing the atom number and the new mass (here, 2 for deuterium).

The proof is in the high-frequency region, where the last 16 modes (H-atom motion) in the non-deuterated form…

 HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH

    MODES         EIGV          FREQUENCIES     IRREP  IR   INTENS    RAMAN
             (HARTREE**2)   (CM**-1)     (THZ)             (KM/MOL)
...
  153- 153    0.2003E-03   3106.1384   93.1197  (A2 )   I (     0.00)   A
  154- 154    0.2003E-03   3106.5054   93.1307  (B1 )   A (     0.02)   A
  155- 155    0.2004E-03   3106.5586   93.1323  (A1 )   A (     0.23)   A
  156- 156    0.2004E-03   3106.8420   93.1408  (B2 )   A (     0.48)   A
  157- 157    0.2017E-03   3117.1664   93.4503  (B2 )   A (     1.13)   A
  158- 158    0.2018E-03   3117.4901   93.4600  (B1 )   A (     2.33)   A
  159- 159    0.2021E-03   3120.2876   93.5439  (A1 )   A (   115.24)   A
  160- 160    0.2022E-03   3120.7805   93.5586  (A2 )   I (     0.00)   A
  161- 161    0.2131E-03   3203.6552   96.0432  (A1 )   A (    44.59)   A
  162- 162    0.2131E-03   3203.6581   96.0433  (B2 )   A (   115.98)   A
  163- 163    0.2132E-03   3204.6505   96.0730  (B1 )   A (    15.30)   A
  164- 164    0.2132E-03   3204.8874   96.0801  (A2 )   I (     0.00)   A
  165- 165    0.2157E-03   3223.4669   96.6371  (A1 )   A (    44.98)   A
  166- 166    0.2157E-03   3223.5803   96.6405  (B2 )   A (    27.02)   A
  167- 167    0.2158E-03   3223.8536   96.6487  (B1 )   A (    35.26)   A
  168- 168    0.2158E-03   3224.3355   96.6631  (A2 )   I (     0.00)   A

change to the following last 16 modes (H/D-atom motion) upon deuteration. Note the mode energies split and the mode symmetries go from (A1,A2,B1,B2) to (A). Also note your IR mode intensities change, giving you the complete picture upon isotopic substitution.

 HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH

    MODES         EIGV          FREQUENCIES     IRREP  IR   INTENS    RAMAN
             (HARTREE**2)   (CM**-1)     (THZ)             (KM/MOL)
...
  153- 153    0.1074E-03   2274.8942   68.1996  (A  )   A (     1.07)   A
  154- 154    0.1075E-03   2275.5949   68.2206  (A  )   A (     3.75)   A
  155- 155    0.1075E-03   2275.7008   68.2238  (A  )   A (     2.93)   A
  156- 156    0.1099E-03   2300.7446   68.9746  (A  )   A (     4.68)   A
  157- 157    0.1148E-03   2351.7846   70.5047  (A  )   A (    11.32)   A
  158- 158    0.1183E-03   2387.0269   71.5613  (A  )   A (    36.17)   A
  159- 159    0.1183E-03   2387.2610   71.5683  (A  )   A (    16.04)   A
  160- 160    0.1184E-03   2387.6687   71.5805  (A  )   A (     3.73)   A
  161- 161    0.2006E-03   3108.6223   93.1942  (A  )   A (     0.93)   A
  162- 162    0.2009E-03   3110.5061   93.2506  (A  )   A (    12.43)   A
  163- 163    0.2009E-03   3110.7567   93.2581  (A  )   A (    13.67)   A
  164- 164    0.2039E-03   3134.0133   93.9554  (A  )   A (    40.48)   A
  165- 165    0.2147E-03   3215.5160   96.3987  (A  )   A (    19.38)   A
  166- 166    0.2157E-03   3223.4291   96.6360  (A  )   A (    35.29)   A
  167- 167    0.2157E-03   3223.5925   96.6409  (A  )   A (    29.50)   A
  168- 168    0.2158E-03   3223.8729   96.6493  (A  )   A (     8.37)   A

The Low-/Room-temperature Forms Of The Lithiated Salt Of 3,6-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone: A Combined Experimental And Dispersion-Corrected Density Functional Study

In press, in CrystEngComm (DOI:10.1039/C2CE26523). This is my first full paper completely internet-powered, in that I’ve not physically met any of the other co-authors (also in the internet-powered context, the recent paper on [18]-annulene was written and submitted without sharing a room with Dr. Bruce Hudson, but we’re in the same building, so it doesn’t quite count). Also, one of the few papers for which I had no image generation duties (a rare treat).

The discussion of the very interesting possibilities of molecular redox materials in lithium-ion batteries aside, this paper presents a very thorough example of the power of computational approaches to greatly improve the understanding of solid-state molecular materials by (specifically) 1: overcoming the hydrogen position identification problems inherent in X-ray diffraction methods, 2: reproducing the changes that come with temperature variations in molecular crystals and explaining the origins of those (possibly subtle) changes by way of dispersion-corrected density functional theory, and 3: demonstrating that the nature of intermolecular interactions (specifically hydrogen bonding) can be rigorously cataloged across varied materials using post-optimization tools (in this case, using Carlo Gatti’s excellent TOPOND program).

2013dec20_crysengcommcover

Caption: Issue cover.

Gaëtan Bonnard, Anne-Lise Barrès, Olivier Mentré, Damian G. Allis, Carlo Gatti, Philippe Poizot and Christine Frayret*

Abstract

Following our first experimental and computational study of the room temperature (RT) form of the tetrahydrated 3,6-dihydroxy-2,5-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone (LiM2DHDMQâ‹…4H2O) compound, we have researched the occurrence of hydrogen ordering in a new polymorph at lower temperature. The study of polymorphism for the Li2DHDMQâ‹…4H2O phase employs both experimental (single crystal X-ray diffraction) and theoretical approaches. While clues for disorder over one bridging water molecule were observed at RT (beta-form),a fully ordered model within a supercell has been evidenced at 100K (alpha-form) and is discussed in conjunction with the features characterizing the first polymorphic form reported previously. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations augmented with an empirical dispersion correction (DFT-D) were applied for the prediction of the structural and chemical bonding properties of the alpha and beta polymorphs of Li2DHDMQ·4H2O. The relative stability of the two polymorphic systems is evidenced. An insight into the interplay of hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and van der Waals (vdW) interactions in affecting the properties of the two polymorphs is gained. This study also shows how information from DFT-D calculations can be used to augment the information from the experimental crystal diffraction pattern and can so play an active role in crystal structure determination, especially by increasing the reliability and accuracy of H-positioning. These more accurate hydrogen coordinates allowed for a quantification of H-bonding strength through a topological analysis of the electron density (Atoms-in-molecules theory).

CCSD(T) and MP4 Z-Matrix Coordinate Oddity In Gaussian: When In Doubt, Change Your Format

This post was instigated by Syracuse University Professor of Chemistry and well-known non-blogger Tim Korter concerning efforts to, I believe, generate proper Møller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Of The 4th Order (MP4, and also testing coupled cluster CCSD(T) calculations) intermolecular potentials for improving terms for Grimme dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the Gaussian09 package (a program for which many people grumble about various issues but which is, by nearly all metrics, a fantastic set of quantum chemical programs). The examples below, using water only, are just for ease-of-testing, which produce the following results based on the form of the input of the molecular coordinates. For those wondering why, z-matrices are the preferred format for performing SCAN or other automated trajectory calculations (an absolutely useless format, in my opinion, now that we have computers that can handle more than five atoms).

1. Molecular coordinates defined in the z-matrix (obviously in z-matrix format) and “z-matrix” called in the opt keyword…

#p scf=tight opt(tight,z-matrix) MP4/aug-cc-pVTZ
 
h2o test 1
 
0 1
O              
H                  1    0.96000000
H                  1    0.96000000    2  109.50000032

… produces:

 ************************************************
 ** ERROR IN INITNF. NUMBER OF VARIABLES (  0) **
 **   INCORRECT (SHOULD BE BETWEEN 1 AND 50)   **
 ************************************************

2. Molecular coordinates defined in the z-matrix (obviously in z-matrix format) and “z-matrix” NOT called in the opt keyword…

#p scf=tight opt=tight MP4/aug-cc-pVTZ
 
h2o test 2
 
0 1
O              
H                  1    0.96000000
H                  1    0.96000000    2  109.50000032

… produces:

 ************************************************
 ** ERROR IN INITNF. NUMBER OF VARIABLES (  0) **
 **   INCORRECT (SHOULD BE BETWEEN 1 AND 50)   **
 ************************************************

3. Molecular coordinates defined by variables in the z-matrix (obviously in z-matrix format) and “z-matrix” called in the opt keyword…

#p scf=tight opt(tight,z-matrix) CCS(D)/aug-cc-pVTZ
 
h2o test 3
 
0 1
O              
H                  1    B1
H                  1    B1     2  A1 

B1 0.96000000    
A1 109.50000032

… produces:

Normal termination of Gaussian 09 at Fri Apr 27 11:28:33 2012.

4. Molecular coordinates defined by variables in the z-matrix (obviously in z-matrix format) and “z-matrix” NOT called in the opt keyword…

#p scf=tight opt=tight MP4/aug-cc-pVTZ
 
h2o test 4
 
0 1
O              
H                  1    B1
H                  1    B1     2  A1 

B1 0.96000000    
A1 109.50000032

… produces:

Normal termination of Gaussian 09 at Fri Apr 27 11:28:33 2012.

So, a solution, for when the dreaded…

 NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-NEF-
 NUMERICAL EIGENVECTOR FOLLOWING MINIMUM SEARCH
 INITIALIZATION PASS


 ************************************************
 ** ERROR IN INITNF. NUMBER OF VARIABLES (  0) **
 **   INCORRECT (SHOULD BE BETWEEN 1 AND 50)   **
 ************************************************

… error appears, the simple solution is to re-define your system.

In the interest of wasting a few cycles, I ran a series of the same calculations with other post-Hartree-Fock methods [B3LYP, MP2, MP4, CCS(D), CCSD(T)] to see how pervasive the issue with coordinate definitions might be. It appears to be limited only to MP4 and CCSDT (CCS(D) worked but took an unbelievably long time for Option 3 above), meaning people generally running significant molecules likely have never come across the issue.